The M1870 Vetterli was the Italian service rifle from 1870-1887
The M1870 was a single-shot bolt action rifle chambered for the 10.4mm Vetterli centrefire cartridge
In 1887 (until 1896), the Italian Army began converting
the M1870 to a four-shot repeating rifle, based on the system designed
As more of the population mobilized for the first total war in European history, the supply of modern small arms fell short before the end of 1915 and a large number of obsolete Modello 1870/87 Vetterli-Vital were issued to newly formed regiments that were not expected to be in combat, however, troops carried these antiquated rifles into battle on several occasions.
During World War I, many M1870/87 rifles were converted to share the same 6.5mm smokeless powder round instead of the inferior black powder rounds as the primary service rifle, the Carcano, by adding a 6.5mm barrel lining and a modified M91 Carcano magazine. The barrel sleeving was called the "Salerno method". The bolt face was also machined to accept the smaller diameter 6.5 mm cartridge head, and the firing pin shortened.